Most Cited zkSNARKs Publications

AnonymousPrivate but verifiable transactions are a powerful use case of blockchain technology and are part of several successful cryptocurrency projects already. Here are publications related to the technology of “zero knowledge proofs”, or zkSNARKs. It is a mathematical approach to determine if something is valid without knowing the precise information or values of what is being tested. It is an approach to determine validity of transactions while still preserving privacy. This approach has been quite helpful it providing needed confirmation of transactions in certain blockchain projects and applications.

Last updated October 13th, 2018.

  1. Zerocash: Decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin“. EB Sasson, A Chiesa, C Garman…. 2014. ieeexplore.ieee.org Security and Privacy …. 228 cites.
  2. Functional signatures and pseudorandom functions“. E Boyle, S Goldwasser, I Ivan. 2014. dspace.mit.edu . 190 cites.
  3. SNARKs for C: Verifying program executions succinctly and in zero knowledge“. E Ben-Sasson, A Chiesa, D Genkin, E Tromer…. 2013. Springer Advances in Cryptology …. 162 cites.
  4. From extractable collision resistance to succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge, and back again“. N Bitansky, R Canetti, A Chiesa, E Tromer. 2012. dl.acm.org Proceedings of the 3rd …. 160 cites.
  5. Hawk: The blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts“. A Kosba, A Miller, E Shi, Z Wen…. 2016. ieeexplore.ieee.org Security and Privacy …. 141 cites.
  6. Succinct Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge for a von Neumann Architecture.“. E Ben-Sasson, A Chiesa, E Tromer…. 2014. usenix.org USENIX Security …. 90 cites.
  7. Scalable zero knowledge via cycles of elliptic curves“. E Ben-Sasson, A Chiesa, E Tromer, M Virza. 2017. Springer Algorithmica. 51 cites.
  8. The hunting of the SNARK“. N Bitansky, R Canetti, A Chiesa, S Goldwasser…. 2017. Springer Journal of …. 36 cites.
  9. Secure sampling of public parameters for succinct zero knowledge proofs“. E Ben-Sasson, A Chiesa, M Green…. 2015. ieeexplore.ieee.org Security and Privacy …. 28 cites.
  10. Cluster Computing in Zero Knowledge.“. A Chiesa, E Tromer, M Virza. 2015. eprint.iacr.org IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive. 22 cites.
  11. Blindly signed contracts: Anonymous on-blockchain and off-blockchain Bitcoin transactions“. E Heilman, F Baldimtsi, S Goldberg. 2016. Springer International Conference on Financial …. 21 cites.
  12. The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology“. W Mougayar. 2016. books.google.com . 20 cites.
  13. The ring of Gyges: Investigating the future of criminal smart contracts“. A Juels, A Kosba, E Shi. 2016. dl.acm.org Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC …. 19 cites.
  14. Sealed-glass proofs: Using transparent enclaves to prove and sell knowledge“. F Tramer, F Zhang, H Lin, JP Hubaux…. 2017. ieeexplore.ieee.org Security and Privacy …. 14 cites.
  15. Symbolic Malleable Zero-Knowledge Proofs“. M Backes, F Bendun, M Maffei…. 2015. ieeexplore.ieee.org … (CSF), 2015 IEEE …. 11 cites.
  16. Provisions: Privacy-preserving proofs of solvency for bitcoin exchanges“. GG Dagher, B Bünz, J Bonneau, J Clark…. 2015. dl.acm.org Proceedings of the 22nd …. 11 cites.
  17. Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments for a von Neumann Architecture.“. E Ben-Sasson, A Chiesa…. 2013. pdfs.semanticscholar.org IACR Cryptology …. 10 cites.
  18. Accountable privacy for decentralized anonymous payments“. C Garman, M Green, I Miers. 2016. Springer … on Financial Cryptography and Data Security. 9 cites.
  19. Prover-efficient commit-and-prove zero-knowledge SNARKs“. H Lipmaa. 2016. Springer International Conference on Cryptology in Africa. 9 cites.
  20. Blockchain challenges and opportunities: A survey“. Z Zheng, S Xie, HN Dai, H Wang. 2016. researchgate.net Work Pap. 9 cites.
  21. Bolt: Anonymous Payment Channels for Decentralized Currencies.“. MD Green, I Miers. 2016. pdfs.semanticscholar.org IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive. 8 cites.
  22. P2P Mixing and Unlinkable Bitcoin Transactions.“. T Ruffing, P Moreno-Sanchez…. 2016. pdfs.semanticscholar.org IACR Cryptology ePrint …. 8 cites.
  23. How to Use SNARKs in Universally Composable Protocols.“. AE Kosba, Z Zhao, A Miller, Y Qian…. 2015. pdfs.semanticscholar.org IACR Cryptology …. 7 cites.
  24. How to vote privately using bitcoin“. Z Zhao, THH Chan. 2015. Springer International Conference on Information and …. 6 cites.
  25. PRISMACLOUD tools: a cryptographic toolbox for increasing security in cloud services“. T Lorünser, D Slamanig, T Länger…. 2016. ieeexplore.ieee.org … Reliability and Security …. 5 cites.
  26. PhotoProof: Cryptographic image authentication for any set of permissible transformations“. A Naveh, E Tromer. 2016. ieeexplore.ieee.org Security and Privacy (SP), 2016 IEEE …. 5 cites.
  27. TumbleBit: An Untrusted Tumbler for Bitcoin-Compatible Anonymous Payments.“. E Heilman, F Baldimtsi, L Alshenibr…. 2016. pdfs.semanticscholar.org IACR Cryptology …. 4 cites.
  28. Why Southern China broke up its power grid [News]“. P Fairley. 2016. ieeexplore.ieee.org IEEE Spectrum. 4 cites.
  29. A scalable verification solution for blockchains“. J Teutsch, C Reitwießner. 2017. people.cs.uchicago.edu . 4 cites.
  30. A blockchain currency that beat s bitcoin on privacy [News]“. M Peck. 2016. ieeexplore.ieee.org IEEE Spectrum. 3 cites.
  31. Zcash Protocol Specification“. D Hopwood, S Bowe, T Hornby, N Wilcox. 2016. raw.githubusercontent.com . 3 cites.
  32. Prio: Private, Robust, and Scalable Computation of Aggregate Statistics.“. H Corrigan-Gibbs, D Boneh. 2017. usenix.org NSDI. 3 cites.
  33. Watermarked tokens and pseudonymity on public blockchains“. T Swanson. 2015. r3cev.com Unpublished manuscript, R3CEV. 3 cites.
  34. c∅: A framework for building composable zero-knowledge proofs“. A Kosba, Z Zhao, A Miller, Y Qian, H Chan…. 2015. eprint.iacr.org . 2 cites.
  35. Review of Bitcoin Scaling Proposals“. B Bishop. 2015. scalingbitcoin.org Scaling Bitcoin Workshop Phase. 2 cites.
  36. Zero-knowledge contingent payments revisited: Attacks and payments for services“. M Campanelli, R Gennaro, S Goldfeder, L Nizzardo. 2017. eprint.iacr.org Commun. ACM. 2 cites.
  37. Mixing Confidential Transactions: Comprehensive Transaction Privacy for Bitcoin.“. T Ruffing, P Moreno-Sanchez. 2017. fc17.ifca.ai IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive. 2 cites.
  38. A multi-party protocol for constructing the public parameters of the Pinocchio zk-SNARK“. S Bowe, A Gabizon, MD Green. 2016. z.cash . 2 cites.
  39. National Security Implications of Virtual Currency: Examining the Potential for Non-state Actor Deployment“. J Baron, A O’Mahony, D Manheim, C Dion-Schwarz. 2015. dtic.mil . 2 cites.
  40. Corda–A distributed ledger“. M Hearn. 2016. block.academy Corda Technical White Paper. 2 cites.
  41. Towards self-sovereign identity using blockchain technology“. DS Baars. 2016. essay.utwente.nl . 2 cites.
  42. Notes on Scalable Blockchain Protocols (verson 0.3)“. V Buterin, J Coleman, M Wampler-Doty. 2015. pdfs.semanticscholar.org . 2 cites.
  43. Concurrency and privacy with payment-channel networks“. G Malavolta, P Moreno-Sanchez, A Kate, M Maffei…. 2017. cs.purdue.edu . 2 cites.
  44. Sublinear Zero-Knowledge Arguments for RAM Programs“. P Mohassel, M Rosulek, A Scafuro. 2017. Springer … on the Theory and Applications of …. 2 cites.
  45. zkSNARKs in a nutshell“. C Reitwiessner. 2016. . 1 cites.
  46. Chosen-Ciphertext Secure Fully Homomorphic Encryption“. R Canetti, S Raghuraman, S Richelson…. 2017. Springer … Workshop on Public …. 1 cites.
  47. Provable Security for Cryptocurrencies“. A Miller. 2016. drum.lib.umd.edu . 1 cites.
  48. A subversion-resistant SNARK“. B Abdolmaleki, K Baghery, H Lipmaa, M Zajac. 2017. eprint.iacr.org . 1 cites.
  49. Z-Channel: Scalable and Efficient Scheme in Zerocash“. Y Zhang, Y Long, Z Liu, Z Liu, D Gu. 2017. allquantor.at . 1 cites.
  50. An overview of blockchain technology: Architecture, consensus, and future trends“. Z Zheng, S Xie, H Dai, X Chen…. 2017. ieeexplore.ieee.org Big Data (BigData …. 1 cites.
  51. Enhancing the Privacy of Users in eID schemes through Cryptography“. K Shrishak, APDZ Erkin. 2016. prlab.tudelft.nl Literature Survey, Delft University of …. 1 cites.
  52. Full accounting for verifiable outsourcing.“. RS Wahby, Y Ji, AJ Blumberg, A Shelat…. 2017. eprint.iacr.org IACR Cryptology …. 1 cites.
  53. Accountable Metadata-Hiding Escrow: A Group Signature Case Study“. M Kohlweiss, I Miers. 2015. degruyter.com Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing …. 1 cites.
  54. P2P Mixing and Unlinkable P2P Transactions“. P Moreno-Sanchez, T Ruffing, A Kate. 2016. pdfs.semanticscholar.org Draft, June. 1 cites.
  55. Ontology of Blockchain Technologies. Principles of Identification and Classification“. P Tasca, T Thanabalasingham, CJ Tessone. 2017. papers.ssrn.com . 1 cites.
  56. Minimizing Overhead for Secure Computation and Fully Homomorphic Encryption: Overhead“. A Shelat, S Hohenberger, S Myers, R Pass. 2015. dtic.mil . 1 cites.
  57. Polkadot: Vision for a heterogeneous multi-chain framework“. G Wood. 2016. cdn.relayto.com . 1 cites.
  58. Pinocchio-based adaptive zk-SNARKS and secure/correct adaptive function evaluation“. M Veeningen. 2017. Springer International Conference on Cryptology in Africa. 0 cites.
  59. Implementing lattice-based cryptography in libsnark“. SJ Menon. 0. crypto.stanford.edu. 0 cites.
  60. POSTER: Succinct Non-Interactive Zero Knowledge for a von Neumann Architecture“. E Ben-Sasson, A Chiesa, E Tromer, M Virza. 0. pdfs.semanticscholar.org. 0 cites.
  61. Auditable Zerocoin“. K Naganuma, M Yoshino, H Sato…. 2017. ieeexplore.ieee.org Security and Privacy …. 0 cites.
  62. Zerocash: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin.“. E Tromer, A Chiesa, I Miers, C Garman, M Virza…. 2014. . 0 cites.
  63. RingCT 2.0: A Compact Accumulator-Based (Linkable Ring Signature) Protocol for Blockchain Cryptocurrency Monero“. SF Sun, MH Au, JK Liu, TH Yuen. 2017. Springer European Symposium on Research in …. 0 cites.
  64. Snarky Signatures: Minimal Signatures of Knowledge from Simulation-Extractable SNARKs“. J Groth, M Maller. 2017. Springer Annual International Cryptology Conference. 0 cites.
  65. Internet Voting Using Zcash“. P Tarasov, H Tewari. 0. allquantor.at. 0 cites.
  66. NIZKCTF: A Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Capture the Flag Platform“. P Matias, P Barbosa, T Cardoso, D Mariano…. 2017. arxiv.org arXiv preprint arXiv …. 0 cites.
  67. Private, secure and truthful multi-party protocols“. Z Zhao, 赵智超. 2016. hub.hku.hk HKU Theses Online (HKUTO). 0 cites.
  68. Explore the Blockchain, Ignore the Bitcoin Maximalists“. T Swanson. 2015. go.galegroup.com American Banker. 0 cites.
  69. On or Off the Blockchain? Insights on Off-Chaining Computation and Data“. J Eberhardt, S Tai. 2017. Springer European Conference on Service-Oriented and Cloud …. 0 cites.
  70. Confidential Assets“. A Poelstra, A Back, M Friedenbach, G Maxwell…. 0. pdfs.semanticscholar.org. 0 cites.
  71. Cryptography and Protocols in Hyperledger Fabric“. E Androulaki, C Cachin, A De Caro, A Kind, M Osborne. 0. zurich.ibm.com. 0 cites.
  72. Cryptographic methods for secure delegation of computation in electronic voting applications“. A Querol Cruz. 2017. ETSI_Informatica . 0 cites.
  73. Progress in Cryptology-AFRICACRYPT 2017: 9th International Conference on Cryptology in Africa, Dakar, Senegal, May 24-26, 2017, Proceedings“. M Joye, A Nitaj. 2017. books.google.com . 0 cites.
  74. Progress in Cryptology-AFRICACRYPT 2017“. M Joye, A Nitaj. 0. Springer. 0 cites.
  75. Privacy on the Blockchain: Unique Ring Signatures“. R Mercer. 2016. arxiv.org arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.01188. 0 cites.
  76. Introduction and overview of verifiable computation“. M Walfish. 2016. pdfs.semanticscholar.org . 0 cites.
  77. Zcash Protocol Specification“. SBDHT Hornby, N Wilcox. 2016. pdfs.semanticscholar.org . 0 cites.
  78. CRYPTOGRAPHICALLY ASSURED ZERO-KNOWLEDGE CLOUD SERVICES FOR ELEMENTAL TRANSACTIONS“. JR Kraemer, JR Linton. 2017. freepatentsonline.com US Patent 20,170,279,611. 0 cites.
  79. A review of the Blockchain literature“. G Pîrlea. 2016. students.cs.ucl.ac.uk . 0 cites.
  80. Using a blockchain-based approach to exchange (financial) assets“. M Modsching, A Apfelbacher, J Horch…. 2017. ingentaconnect.com Journal of Digital …. 0 cites.
  81. Blockchain, cryptography, and consensus“. C Cachin. 2017. zurich.ibm.com . 0 cites.
  82. Blockchains and consensus protocols“. C Cachin, SS Osborne, A Sorniotti, M Vukolic. 2017. zurich.ibm.com . 0 cites.
  83. Extended Version“. E Cecchetti, A Kosba, A Juels, E Shi. 0. pdfs.semanticscholar.org. 0 cites.
  84. Ethan Cecchetti“. A Kosba, A Juels, E Shi. 0. eprint.iacr.org. 0 cites.
  85. Solidus: Confidential Distributed Ledger Transactions via PVORM.“. E Cecchetti, F Zhang, Y Ji, AE Kosba, A Juels…. 2017. initc3.org IACR Cryptology ePrint …. 0 cites.
  86. Plasma: Scalable Autonomous Smart Contracts“. J Poon, V Buterin. 2017. plasma.io White paper. 0 cites.
  87. Designing Privacy-Preserving Blockchain Based Accounting Information Systems“. Y Wang, A Kogan. 2017. papers.ssrn.com . 0 cites.
  88. Zen White Paper“. R Viglione, R Versluis, J Lippencott. 2017. zencash.io . 0 cites.
  89. SNARKs for C: verifying program executions succinctly and in zero knowledge“. M Virza. 2014. dspace.mit.edu . 0 cites.
  90. Fast Reed-Solomon Interactive Oracle Proofs of Proximity“. E Ben-Sasson, I Bentov, Y Horesh, M Riabzev. 2017. pdfs.semanticscholar.org . 0 cites.
  91. Subversion-zero-knowledge SNARKs“. G Fuchsbauer. 2017. eprint.iacr.org . 0 cites.
  92. Verifiable Document Redacting“. H Chabanne, R Hugel, J Keuffer. 2017. Springer European Symposium on Research in …. 0 cites.
  93. Untangling Blockchain: A Data Processing View of Blockchain Systems“. TTA Dinh, R Liu, M Zhang, G Chen, BC Ooi…. 2017. arxiv.org arXiv preprint arXiv …. 0 cites.
  94. Zen 白皮书“. R Viglione, R Versluis, J Lippencott. 2017. blog.zensystem.io . 0 cites.
  95. Utilização de machine learning para categorização dos gastos de bitcoin no Brasil“. VT Tomé. 2017. bibliotecadigital.fgv.br . 0 cites.
  96. A Zoo of Homomorphic Signatures“. RWF Lai, RKH Tai, HWH Wong, SSM Chow. 0. eprint.iacr.org. 0 cites.
  97. Quanta lottery white paper draft v0. 4.3“. A Ospan, K Skrzypski, C Hatch. 2016. quanta.im . 0 cites.
  98. On the Security, Performance and Privacy of Proof of Work Blockchains“. A Gervais. 2016. e-collection.library.ethz.ch . 0 cites.
  99. Key-Homomorphic Signatures and Applications to Multiparty Signatures and Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge“. D Derler, D Slamanig. 0. eprint.iacr.org. 0 cites.
  100. REMOTEGATE: Incentive-Compatible Remote Configuration of Security Gateways“. A Aggarwal, M Zamani, M Christodorescu. 2017. arxiv.org arXiv preprint arXiv …. 0 cites.
  101. 比特币与法定数字货币“. 秦波. 2017. jcr.cacrnet.org.cn 密码学报. 0 cites.
  102. A Decentralized Oracle Network Steve Ellis, Ari Juels, and Sergey Nazarov“. S Ellis. 0. crushcrypto.com. 0 cites.
  103. Möbius: Trustless Tumbling for Transaction Privacy“. S Meiklejohn, R Mercer. 0. allquantor.at. 0 cites.
  104. Preserving transaction privacy in bitcoin“. Q Wang, B Qin, J Hu, F Xiao. 2017. Elsevier Future Generation Computer Systems. 0 cites.
  105. Designing Secure And Fair Protocols With Bitcoin“. Α Τσουβελεκάκης. 2016. artemis-new.cslab.ece.ntua.gr . 0 cites.
  106. Livre blanc Zen“. R Viglione, R Versluis, J Lippencott. 2017. blog.zensystem.io . 0 cites.
  107. Distributed ledger technical research in Central Bank of Brazil“. A de Vilaca Burgos, JD de Oliveira Filho, MVC Suares…. 2017. bcb.gov.br . 0 cites.
  108. R3 Reports“. J Stark. 0. finra.org. 0 cites.
  109. Distributed ledger technology in the capital market: Shared versus private information in a permissioned blockchain“. A Piccolo. 2017. diva-portal.org . 0 cites.
  110. 23rd USENIX Security Symposium“. N Hackers. 0. usenix.org. 0 cites.

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