Most Cited Hawala or Hundi System Publications

Hundi NoteHawala or hundi is a popular system of trust to transfer value. It is a network of participants which enables global remittances. Essentially there is a larger global network of money lenders who act in parallel at a distance. What is interesting is that the system establishes trust and is robust because of this community aspect. It is an ancient style of money networking and the principle of a trusted quorum of nodes is actually the basis of the Ripple network used by banks. A good overview of the systems is available here. Last updated November 20th, 2017.

  1. Remittances: the new development mantra?“. D Kapur. 2005. Remittances: Development impact and future …. 764 cites.
  2. Behind the curve: Globalization and international terrorism“. AK Cronin. 2002. MIT Press International security. 559 cites.
  3. Capitalism’s Achilles heel: Dirty money and how to renew the free-market system“. RW Baker. 2005. . 465 cites.
  4. How al-Qaida ends: The decline and demise of terrorist groups“. AK Cronin. 2006. MIT Press International Security. 380 cites.
  5. International migration and economic development: Lessons from low-income countries“. REB Lucas. 2005. . 369 cites.
  6. Illicit flows and criminal things: States, borders, and the other side of globalization“. W Van Schendel, I Abraham. 2005. . 275 cites.
  7. Dirty money: the evolution of international measures to counter money laundering and the financing of terrorism“. WC Gilmore. 2004. . 260 cites.
  8. Migration Remittances and Development: A Review of Global Evidence 1“. J Page, S Plaza. 2006. Journal of African Economies. 235 cites.
  9. Migrant remittances“. D Yang. 2011. American Economic Association The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 222 cites.
  10. Remittances: transaction costs, determinants, and informal flows“. CL Freund, N Spatafora. 2005. . 218 cites.
  11. Effects of migration on sending countries“. LT Katseli, REB Lucas, T Xenogiani. 2006. . 215 cites.
  12. Remittances, transaction costs, and informality“. C Freund, N Spatafora. 2008. Elsevier Journal of Development Economics. 214 cites.
  13. Informal Funds Transfer Systems: An analysis of the informal hawala system“. M El Qorchi, SM Maimbo, JF Wilson. 2003. . 207 cites.
  14. Mexican hometown associations and development opportunities“. M Orozco, M Lapointe. 2004. JSTOR Journal of International Affairs. 179 cites.
  15. Can remittances spur development? A critical survey“. SS Brown. 2006. Wiley Online Library International Studies Review. 152 cites.
  16. The hawala alternative remittance system and its role in money laundering“. PM Jost, HS Sandhu. 2003. . 146 cites.
  17. Informal Value Transfer Systems and Criminal Organizations; a study into so-called underground banking networks“. N Passas. 1999. . 139 cites.
  18. Migration’s new payoff“. D Kapur, J McHale. 2003. JSTOR Foreign Policy. 137 cites.
  19. Organised crime around the world“. S Adamoli, A Di Nicola, EU Savona, P Zoffi. 1998. . 125 cites.
  20. Migration and development“. D Ratha, S Yi, SR Yousefi. 2015. Routledge Handbook of Immigration …. 117 cites.
  21. Organised crime“. A Wright. 2013. . 117 cites.
  22. Trends, Impacts, and Policy Options“. DR Agunias. 2006. A review of the literature. Washington, DC …. 116 cites.
  23. UN targeted sanctions, legal safeguards and the European Convention on Human Rights“. I Cameron. 2003. Nordic Journal of International Law. 114 cites.
  24. Worker remittances in an international scope“. M Orozco. 2010. . 112 cites.
  25. The Money Exchange Dealers of Kabul: a study of the Hawala system in Afghanistan“. SM Maimbo. 2003. . 106 cites.
  26. Remittances during crises: implications for humanitarian response“. K Savage, P Harvey. 2007. . 106 cites.
  27. Entrepreneurship in emerging markets“. P Tracey, N Phillips. 2011. Springer Management International Review. 100 cites.
  28. Hawala discourses and the war on terrorist finance“. M De Goede. 2003. Environment and Planning D: society and …. 99 cites.
  29. Migration and inequality“. R Black, C Natali, J Skinner. 2005. . 86 cites.
  30. Migration in the Asia-Pacific region“. G Hugo. 2005. . 86 cites.
  31. Remittances and financial development: substitutes or complements in economic growth?“. G Bettin, A Zazzaro. 2012. Wiley Online Library Bulletin of Economic Research. 84 cites.
  32. Some questions about the definition of terrorism and the fight against its financing“. JM Sorel. 2003. European Journal of International Law. 83 cites.
  33. Fiery dragons: Banks, moneylenders and microfinance in Burma“. S Turnell. 2009. . 79 cites.
  34. Money laundering—a global obstacle“. B Buchanan. 2004. Elsevier Research in International Business and Finance. 78 cites.
  35. Suppressing the financing of terrorism: Proliferating state crime, eroding censure and extending neo-colonialism“. J McCulloch, S Pickering. 2005. British Journal of Criminology. 77 cites.
  36. Fighting terror with error: the counter-productive regulation of informal value transfers“. N Passas. 2006. Springer Crime, law and social change. 76 cites.
  37. Money laundering and financial means of organised crime: some preliminary empirical findings“. F Schneider. 2008. Global Business and Economics Review. 75 cites.
  38. Migrant remittances to developing countries“. C Sander. 2003. Development Alternatives Inc.(DAI) . 74 cites.
  39. Responding to Money Laundering“. E Savona. 2005. . 72 cites.
  40. Money laundering and terrorism: Informal value transfer systems“. W Perkel. 2004. HeinOnline Am. Crim. L. Rev.. 71 cites.
  41. Remittances in crises: A case study from Pakistan“. AQ Suleri, K Savage. 2006. . 71 cites.
  42. The new international migration in Asia: challenges for population research“. G Hugo. 2005. Taylor & Francis Asian Population Studies. 71 cites.
  43. Extreme money: Masters of the universe and the cult of risk“. S Das. 2011. . 70 cites.
  44. Migration and development“. D Sriskandarajah. 2005. A paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and …. 68 cites.
  45. Handbook of transnational crime and justice“. P Reichel, J Albanese. 2013. . 67 cites.
  46. The contribution of workers’ remittances to economic growth in Pakistan“. Z Iqbal, A Sattar. 2010. Working Papers & Research Reports. 67 cites.
  47. Retail electronic payments systems for value transfers in the developing world“. B Maurer. 2008. Department of Anthropology, University of …. 66 cites.
  48. Storming the world stage: the story of Lashkar-e-Taiba“. S Tankel. 2013. . 66 cites.
  49. Turnover of organized crime and money laundering: some preliminary empirical findings“. F Schneider. 2010. Springer Public choice. 65 cites.
  50. Prevention of organised crime“. HG Van de Bunt, CRA Van der Schoot. 2003. . 65 cites.
  51. International migration, remittances and rural development“. R Vargas-Lundius, G Lanly, M Villarreal, M Osorio. 2008. FUTURE. 64 cites.
  52. Coalitions of reciprocity and the maintenance of financial integrity within informal value transmission systems: The operational dynamics of contemporary hawala …“. R Ballard. 2005. Springer Journal of banking regulation. 62 cites.
  53. International terrorism and transnational crime: Security threats, US policy, and considerations for Congress“. J Rollins. 2010. . 62 cites.
  54. Global financial information, compliance incentives and terrorist funding“. V FitzGerald. 2004. Elsevier European Journal of Political Economy. 60 cites.
  55. Remittances flow and financial development in Bangladesh“. MB Chowdhury. 2011. Elsevier Economic Modelling. 60 cites.
  56. Hawala and other informal value transfer systems: how to regulate them?“. N Passas. 2003. JSTOR Risk management. 57 cites.
  57. India’s Informal Trade with Bangladesh and Nepal“. S Pohit, N Taneja. 2000. . 57 cites.
  58. Business confronts terrorism: risks and responses“. DC Alexander. 2004. . 57 cites.
  59. Cross-cultural marketing: theory, practice and relevance“. D Burton. 2008. . 56 cites.
  60. Worker Remittances: The human face of globalization“. M Orozco. 2010. . 55 cites.
  61. Remittances: the perpetual migration machine“. M Wucker. 2004. JSTOR World policy journal. 55 cites.
  62. Urban battle fields of South Asia: lessons learned from Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan“. CC Fair. 2005. . 55 cites.
  63. Hawala: An underground haven for terrorists or social phenomenon?“. M Razavy. 2005. Springer Crime, Law and Social Change. 54 cites.
  64. Migrant remittances in Africa: A regional perspective“. C Sander, SM Maimbo. 2005. Remittances Development Impact …. 54 cites.
  65. Anti-terrorism and peace-building during and after conflict“. E Stepanova. 2003. . 53 cites.
  66. Theory or empirics in development economics“. P Bardhan. 2005. JSTOR Economic and Political Weekly. 52 cites.
  67. A typological study on money laundering“. P He. 2010. Journal of Money Laundering Control. 52 cites.
  68. The UK-Nigeria remittance corridor: challenges of embracing formal transfer systems in a dual financial environment“. R Hernandez-Coss, CE Bun. 2007. . 52 cites.
  69. Remittances: the new development finance?“. J Wimaladharma, D Pearce…. 2004. Small enterprise …. 51 cites.
  70. Migrant labor remittances in South Asia“. SM Maimbo, R Adams, N Passas, R Aggarwal. 2005. . 51 cites.
  71. Cooperation, remittances, and kinship among the Hazaras“. A Monsutti. 2004. Taylor & Francis Iranian Studies. 48 cites.
  72. South Asian remittances: Implications for development“. D Seddon. 2004. Taylor & Francis Contemporary South Asia. 47 cites.
  73. International migration and the globalization of domestic politics“. R Koslowski. 2007. International migration and the globalization of …. 46 cites.
  74. The Bengal delta: ecology, state and social change, 1840–1943“. I Iqbal. 2010. . 46 cites.
  75. The development dimension of Migrants Transfers“. P Nyberg Sørensen. 2004. . 45 cites.
  76. The cyber-front in the war on terrorism: Curbing terrorist use of the Internet“. TM Hinnen. 2004. The Columbia Science and Technology Law Review. 45 cites.
  77. Hawala and other informal payments systems: an economic perspective“. JF Wilson. 2002. Address at the Seminar on Current …. 44 cites.
  78. Informal value transfer systems, terrorism and money laundering“. N Passas. 2003. . 44 cites.
  79. Remittances and reputations in hawala money-transfer systems: Self-enforcing exchange on an international scale“. EC Schaeffer. 2008. Journal of Private Enterprise. 43 cites.
  80. Fighting terrorist finance“. JM Winer, TJ Roule. 2002. Survival. 43 cites.
  81. Capturing a market share“. C Sander. 2003. London, Bannock Consulting. 41 cites.
  82. Diasporas, skills transfer, and remittances: Evolving perceptions and potential“. JM Brinkerhoff. 2006. … migration drains into gains: Harnessing the …. 41 cites.
  83. Illicit trafficking: A reference handbook“. RJ Kelly, J Maghan, J Serio. 2005. . 40 cites.
  84. Underground banking: legitimate remittance network or money laundering system?“. R McCusker. 2005. . 38 cites.
  85. The view from Vevey“. ST Madsen. 2001. JSTOR Economic and Political Weekly. 37 cites.
  86. Migrant-worker remittances and Burma: an economic analysis of survey results“. S Turnell, A Vicary, W Bradford. 2008. . 37 cites.
  87. The Cambridge History of Capitalism: Volume 1, The Rise of Capitalism: From Ancient Origins to 1848“. L Neal, JG Williamson. 2014. . 37 cites.
  88. Making money in the Mayhem: Funding Taliban insurrection in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan“. A Acharya, SAAS Bukhari…. 2009. Taylor & Francis Studies in Conflict & …. 36 cites.
  89. A short guide to political risk“. R McKellar. 2010. . 35 cites.
  90. A stranger at ‘home’: interactions between transnational return visits and integration for Afghan‐American professionals“. C Oeppen. 2013. Wiley Online Library Global Networks. 34 cites.
  91. The Obstacles to Regulating the Hawala: A Cultural Norm or a Terrorist Hotbed“. R Pathak. 2003. HeinOnline Fordham Int’l LJ. 33 cites.
  92. Afghanistan: Graveyard of Empires: A New History of the Borderland“. D Isby. 2011. . 33 cites.
  93. Informal value transfer systems and criminal activities“. N Passas. 2005. . 32 cites.
  94. Alternative remittance systems distinguishing sub-systems of ethnic money laundering in INTERPOL member countries on the Asian continent“. LC Carroll. 2007. INTERPOL website, www. interpol. int/Public …. 31 cites.
  95. A Background Report On The Operation Of Informal Value Tranfer Systems (Hawala)“. R Ballard. 2003. . 31 cites.
  96. The moral hazard of anti-terrorism financing measures: a potential to compromise civil societies and national interests“. NJ Crimm. 2008. HeinOnline Wake Forest L. Rev.. 31 cites.
  97. Remittances in the Great Lakes Region“. T De Bruyn, J Wets. 2006. . 31 cites.
  98. The disruption of international organised crime: an analysis of legal and non-legal strategies“. AVM Leong. 2016. . 31 cites.
  99. Hundi/hawala: the problem of definition“. M Martin. 2009. Modern Asian Studies. 30 cites.
  100. Beyond control? The mechanics and dynamics of ‘informal’remittances between Europe and Africa“. FN Pieke, N Van Hear, A Lindley. 2007. Wiley Online Library Global Networks. 30 cites.
  101. The regulation and supervision of informal remittance systems“. SM Maimbo, N Passas. 2004. Small enterprise development. 30 cites.
  102. Migration and small towns in Pakistan“. A Hasan, M Raza. 2009. . 30 cites.
  103. Hawala‐the invisible financing system of terrorism“. NS Jamwal. 2002. Taylor & Francis Strategic Analysis. 29 cites.
  104. Migration and the global economic crisis: one year on“. S Castles, MJ Miller. 2010. Update 1L, abril, disponible en< http …. 28 cites.
  105. The Asian alternative remittance systems and money laundering“. AY Shehu. 2004. Journal of Money Laundering Control. 27 cites.
  106. The remittance market in India: opportunities, challenges, and policy options“. GG Afram. 2012. . 27 cites.
  107. The Obstacles to Suppressing Radical Islamic Terrorist Financing“. JDG Waszak. 2004. HeinOnline Case W. Res. J. Int’l L.. 27 cites.
  108. India’s informal trade with Bangladesh: A qualitative assessment“. S Pohit, N Taneja. 2003. Wiley Online Library The World Economy. 27 cites.
  109. Managing labor migration in the 21st century“. P Martin. 2007. Wiley Online Library City & Society. 27 cites.
  110. Demystifying Hawala: A look into its social organization and mechanics“. N Passas. 2006. Taylor & Francis Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and …. 26 cites.
  111. Remittances as development strategy: Stepping stones or slippery slope?“. MY Mughal. 2013. Wiley Online Library Journal of International Development. 26 cites.
  112. Geldwäsche: Studie über Formen, Akteure, Größenordnung-und warum die Politik machtlos ist“. F Schneider, E Dreer, W Riegler. 2007. . 26 cites.
  113. Criminal capital: How the finance industry facilitates crime“. S Platt. 2015. . 26 cites.
  114. Bank secrecy, illicit money and offshore financial centers“. PM Picard, P Pieretti. 2011. Elsevier Journal of public economics. 26 cites.
  115. Savings and Credits Associations and Remittances: The Case of Far West Nepalese Labour Migrants in Delhi, India“. S Thieme. 2003. . 25 cites.
  116. Labor migration, employment, and poverty alleviation in South Asia“. SK Khatri. 2010. Promoting Economic Cooperation in South Asia …. 25 cites.
  117. Problems applying traditional anti-money laundering procedures to non-financial transactions,“parallel banking systems” and Islamic financial systems“. B Zagaris. 2007. Journal of money laundering control. 24 cites.
  118. Économies trafiquantes et mondialisation“. R Botte. 2002. Politique africaine. 24 cites.
  119. Remittances, dutch disease, and competitiveness: a Bayesian analysis“. F Makhlouf, M Mughal. 2013. Journal of Economic Development. 24 cites.
  120. Dampening price shocks“. P Guillaumont, SG Jeanneney. 2003. Natural Resources and …. 24 cites.
  121. Law enforcement challenges in hawala-related investigations“. N Passas. 2005. Journal of Financial Crime. 23 cites.
  122. The transnational and sub-national in global crimes“. L Cao. 2004. . 23 cites.
  123. The opium trade and patterns of terrorism in the provinces of Afghanistan: An empirical analysis“. JA Piazza. 2012. Taylor & Francis Terrorism and Political Violence. 23 cites.
  124. The global underworld: transnational crime and the United States“. D Liddick. 2004. . 23 cites.
  125. Surveillance to combat terrorist financing in Europe: whose liberty, whose security?“. W Vlcek. 2007. Taylor & Francis European Security. 23 cites.
  126. The design, development, and implementation of regulatory and supervisory frameworks for informal funds transfer systems“. N Passas, SM Maimbo. 2008. Countering the financing of terrorism. 22 cites.
  127. Bringing Finance to Pakistan’s poor: Access to Finance for Small enterprises and the Underserved“. T Nenova, CT Niang, A Ahmad. 2009. . 22 cites.
  128. Money laundering methodologies and international and regional counter-measures“. R McDonell. 1998. a conference convened by the Australian Institute of …. 22 cites.
  129. Migrants’ choice of remittance channel: do general payment habits play a role?“. A Kosse, R Vermeulen. 2014. Elsevier World Development. 22 cites.
  130. Asian experiences with remittances“. G Hugo. 2005. Beyond Small Change Making Migrant Remittances …. 22 cites.
  131. Europe in an Asian mirror: the great divergence“. B Gupta, D Ma. 2010. . 22 cites.
  132. Historical traces of hundi, sociocultural understanding, and criminal abuses of hawala“. D Sharma. 2006. International Criminal Justice Review. 21 cites.
  133. Hawala, hysteria and hegemony“. T Viles. 2008. Journal of Money Laundering Control. 21 cites.
  134. Remittances and poverty linkages in Pakistan: Evidence and some suggestions for further analysis“. M Irfan. 2011. Working Papers & Research Reports. 21 cites.
  135. Hawala and money laundering: a Malaysian perspective“. B Shanmugam. 2005. Journal of Money Laundering Control. 21 cites.
  136. A case study on the misuse of hawala banking“. H Van de Bunt. 2008. International Journal of Social Economics. 21 cites.
  137. The dynamics of translocal and transjurisdictional networks: a diasporic perspective“. R Ballard. 2009. Taylor & Francis South Asian Diaspora. 21 cites.
  138. Terrorist financing“. MR Greenberg, WF Wechsler, LS Wolosky. 2002. New York Council on Foreign …. 21 cites.
  139. Informal trade in the SAARC region: Implications for FTAs“. N Taneja. 2004. JSTOR Economic and Political Weekly. 21 cites.
  140. Emerging threats: financial crime in the virtual world“. SD Keene. 2011. Journal of Money Laundering Control. 21 cites.
  141. Worker migration and remittances in South Asia“. M Ozaki. 2012. . 20 cites.
  142. Migrant Workers’ Remittances: A Source of Finance for Micro-Enterprise Development in Bangladesh?“. AK Azad. 2005. Remittances. 20 cites.
  143. Who is the money for? Remittances within and beyond the household in Pakistan“. MB Erdal. 2012. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal. 20 cites.
  144. Follow the money: The finance of illicit resource extraction“. JM Winer, TJ Roule. 2003. Bannon and Collier (2003). 20 cites.
  145. The financial flows of transnational crime and tax fraud in OECD countries: What do we (not) know?“. F Schneider. 2013. Public Finance Review. 20 cites.
  146. Banks governance and public-private partnership in preventing and confronting organized crime, corruption and terrorism financing“. P Hardouin. 2009. Journal of financial crime. 20 cites.
  147. Migration, remittances and poverty alleviation in Bangladesh: Report and Proposal“. J Buchenau. 2008. Preparatory Assistance for Pro Poor Trade, UNDP …. 20 cites.
  148. The regulation and supervision of informal remittance systems: Emerging oversight strategies“. SM Maimbo. 2004. seminar on current developments in Monetary and …. 19 cites.
  149. Closing the phishing hole–fraud, risk and nonbanks“. R Anderson. 2007. Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Conference on …. 19 cites.
  150. Financial controls of terrorism and informal value transfer methods“. N Passas. 2003. Springer Global Organized Crime. 19 cites.
  151. Sri Lanka’s migrant labor remittances: enhancing the quality and outreach of the rural remittance infrastructure“. E Lasagabaster, SM Maimbo, S Hulugalle. 2005. . 19 cites.
  152. United States’ Narco‐Terrorism Policy: A Contingency Approach to the Convergence of the Wars on Drugs and Against Terrorism“. CJ Dolan. 2005. Wiley Online Library Review of Policy Research. 19 cites.
  153. The hawala system“. DC Faith. 2011. Global Security Studies. 18 cites.
  154. The role of hawala bankers in the transfer of proceeds from organised crime“. H Van de Bunt. 2008. Springer Organized Crime: Culture, Markets and Policies, New …. 18 cites.
  155. Os Impactos das Remessas dos Imigrantes em Portugal no Desenvolvimento de Cabo Verde“. C Tolentino, C Rocha, N Tolentino. 2008. ACIDI, IP . 18 cites.
  156. The trade, migration, and development nexus“. PL Martin. 2006. Migration, Trade, and Development. 18 cites.
  157. The anti-terrorist legislation in the US: Inter Arma Silent Leges“. JAE Vervaele. 2005. Springer European journal of crime, criminal law and criminal …. 18 cites.
  158. Remittances and financial sector’s performance: under two alternative approaches for Pakistan“. M Shahbaz, MN Qureshi, N Aamir. 2007. … Research Journal of Finance …. 18 cites.
  159. Hawala: criminal haven or vital financial network?“. R Ballard. 2006. . 17 cites.
  160. Hawala, Money Laundering, and Terrorism Finance: Mirco-Lending as an End to Illicit Remittance“. CB Bowers. 2008. HeinOnline Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y. 17 cites.
  161. Informal and formal money transfer networks: Financial service or financial crime?“. S Nawaz, R McKinnon, R Webb. 2002. Journal of Money Laundering …. 17 cites.
  162. Money laundering countermeasures with primary focus upon terrorism and the USA patriot act 2001“. FN Baldwin Jr. 2003. Journal of Money Laundering Control. 17 cites.
  163. Social networks, poverty and ethnicity“. A Gilchrist, P Kyprianou. 2011. Programme paper, Joseph Rowntree …. 17 cites.
  164. Гуманитарное измерение внешнеполитической деятельности: общественная дипломатия как научная проблема“. АИ Сухарев, А Кореньков. 2008. Безопасность Евразии. 17 cites.
  165. THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF HUNDI: Channelling migrant remittances from East and South-east Asia to Bangladesh“. MM Rahman, BSA Yeoh. 2008. Taylor & Francis Asian Population Studies. 16 cites.
  166. Money laundering and asset cloaking techniques“. J Simser. 2008. Journal of Money Laundering Control. 16 cites.
  167. The Qatar-Nepal remittance corridor: enhancing the impact and integrity of remittance flows by reducing inefficiencies in the migration process“. I Endo, GG Afram. 2011. . 16 cites.
  168. The financial flows of the transnational crime: Some preliminary empirical results“. F Schneider. 2011. . 16 cites.
  169. Burma and transnational crime“. LS Wyler. 2007. . 16 cites.
  170. Global financial information, compliance incentives and conflict funding“. V Fitzgerald. 2003. Citeseer International Conference on “Globalization and Self …. 16 cites.
  171. Asian underground banking scheme: A field note“. L Lambert. 2002. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 15 cites.
  172. Capturing a market share? Migrant remittances and money transfers as a microfinance service in Sub-Saharan Africa“. C Sander. 2004. Small enterprise development. 15 cites.
  173. Money laundering trends in South Africa“. L de Koker. 2003. Journal of money laundering control. 15 cites.
  174. Alternative remittance systems and terrorism financing: Issues in risk management“. M Vaccani. 2009. . 15 cites.
  175. The (Hidden) Financial Flows of Terrorist and Organized Crime Organizations: A Literature Review and Some Preliminary Empirical Results“. F Schneider. 2010. . 15 cites.
  176. Migrant Remittances and the Financial Market in Moldova“. C Sander, D Nistor, A Bat, V Petrov…. 2005. BASIS CRSP, Madison …. 15 cites.
  177. Combating money laundering and terrorist financing: A model of best practice for the financial sector, the professions and other designated businesses“. Commonwealth Secretariat. 2006. . 15 cites.
  178. The (hidden) financial flows of terrorist and transnational crime organizations: a literature review and some preliminary empirical results“. F Schneider, R Caruso. 2011. . 15 cites.
  179. Global Anti‐Money Laundering Standards and Developing Economies: The Regulation of Mobile Money“. W Vlcek. 2011. Wiley Online Library Development Policy Review. 15 cites.
  180. Hawala and related informal value transfer systems–an assessment in the context of organized crime and terrorist finance: is there cause for concern?“. S Keene. 2007. Springer Security Journal. 14 cites.
  181. Fund Transfers–African Terrorists Blend Old and New: Hawala and Satellite Telecommunications“. MR Feldman. 2006. Taylor & Francis Small wars and insurgencies. 14 cites.
  182. Routledge handbook of the South Asian diaspora“. J Chatterji, D Washbrook. 2014. . 14 cites.
  183. Follow the money: tracing terrorist assets“. J Gillespie. 2002. Seminar on International Finance, Harvard Law School. 14 cites.
  184. Terrorism financing methods: an overview“. M Freeman, M Ruehsen. 2013. Perspectives on Terrorism. 14 cites.
  185. The potential of mobile remittances for the bottom of the pyramid: findings from emerging Asia“. N Sivapragasam, A Agüero, H de Silva. 2011. info. 14 cites.
  186. Remitting money to Bangladesh: what do migrants prefer?“. AKMA Ullah, PK Panday. 2007. Asian and Pacific migration …. 14 cites.
  187. All modes lead to home: assessing the state of the remittance art“. E Yujuico. 2009. Wiley Online Library Global Networks. 14 cites.
  188. Do remittances impact the economy?: some empirical evidences from a developing economy“. H Mallick. 2008. . 14 cites.
  189. Terrorism and the law in Australia: Supporting materials“. N Hancock. 2002. . 14 cites.
  190. ZARCO Exchange: Corporate Governance Failure“. S Husain, K Siddiqui. 2013. IUP Journal of Corporate Governance. 13 cites.
  191. Money laundering: staying ahead of the latest trends“. P Moulette. 2000. … for Economic Cooperation and Development. The …. 13 cites.
  192. Khanani and Kalia International: Corporate Governance Failure“. K Siddiqui, SM Fahim. 2013. IUP Journal of Corporate Governance. 13 cites.
  193. Remittances to developing countries will surpass $400 billion in 2012“. D Ratha, GA Aga, A Silwal. 2012. . 13 cites.
  194. The Rule of Law, Terrorism, and Countermeasures Including the USA Patriot Act of 2001“. FN Baldwin Jr. 2004. HeinOnline Fla. J. Int’l L.. 13 cites.
  195. Migration, Remittances, and Development: Lessons from India“. SK Sasikumar, Z Hussain. 2007. . 13 cites.
  196. The impact of international informal banking on Canada: A case study of Tamil transnational money transfer networks (Undiyal), Canada/Sri Lanka“. SJ Aiken, R Cheran. 2005. . 13 cites.
  197. Remittances. Overview of the existing literature“. S Salomone. 2006. … University Institute, available online, accessed at. 13 cites.
  198. Mobility, empire, colonisation“. T Ballantyne. 2014. Taylor & Francis History Australia. 13 cites.
  199. Preliminary study: Explaining the ten-fold increase in remittances to Pakistan 2001-2012“. R Amjad, GM Arif, M Irfan. 2012. . 13 cites.
  200. India’s rise as an Asian power: nation, neighborhood, and region“. ADD Gordon, S Gordon. 2014. . 13 cites.
  201. The Infiltrator: Undercover in the World of Drug Barons and Dirty Banks“. R Mazur. 2016. Random House . 13 cites.
  202. Anti-money laundering and combating terrorist financing for financial institutions“. IA Odeh. 2010. . 13 cites.
  203. Remittances and public spending on education“. C Dustmann, B Speciale. 2005. Preliminary draft. 12 cites.
  204. Worker’s remittances and GDP growth in Pakistan“. R Hussain, GA Anjum. 2014. International Journal of Economics …. 12 cites.
  205. The regulation and supervision of informal funds transfer systems“. SM Maimbo, N Passas. 2005. Remittances. 12 cites.
  206. Ancient banking, modern crimes: How hawala secretly transfers the finances of criminals and thwarts existing laws“. J Wheatley. 2005. HeinOnline U. Pa. J. Int’l Econ. L.. 12 cites.
  207. The Invisible Bank: Regulating the Hawala System in India, Pakistan and the United Arab Emirates“. AA Daudi. 2004. HeinOnline Ind. Int’l & Comp. L. Rev.. 12 cites.
  208. Money laundering and terrorism financing risks posed by alternative remittance in Australia“. D Rees. 2010. AIC reports. Research and Public Policy series.. 12 cites.
  209. The role of migrant workers remittances in fostering economic growth: The four Asian developing countries’ experiences“. M Azam. 2015. International Journal of Social Economics. 12 cites.
  210. Where political extremists and greedy criminals meet: A comparative study of financial crimes and criminal networks in the United States“. R Belli. 2011. . 12 cites.
  211. Money-Laundering: Risks and Countermeasures“. M Levi. 1996. Money Laundering in the 21st Century: Risks and …. 12 cites.
  212. Migrant Workers’ Remittances: Cambodia, Lao PDR and Myanmar“. A Jampaklay, S Kittisuksathi. 2009. . 12 cites.
  213. Policing White-Collar Crime: Characteristics of White-Collar Criminals“. P Gottschalk. 2013. . 12 cites.
  214. Drug trafficking and money laundering in the Caribbean ‘mini’‐states and dependent territories: The US response“. B Ramharack. 1995. Taylor & Francis The Round Table. 12 cites.
  215. Contending with terrorism: Roots, strategies, and responses“. ME Brown. 2010. . 12 cites.
  216. An introduction to the concept and origins of Hawala“. EA Thompson. 2008. HeinOnline J. Hist. Int’l L.. 11 cites.
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