Most Cited Proof of Work Publications

Mathematical EquationsProof of Work algorithms are used by the majority of present day cryptocurrencies. Different approaches try to resist centralization by special hardware by relying on memory intensive algorithms. Proof-of-work can also be applied to cloud computing and non-blockchain applications, such as reducing spam in email. Generally, these are highly mathematical and game-theoretic scenarios. Some algorithms try to combine proof of work with more useful work, such as finding prime numbers. Last updated November 19th, 2017.

  1. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system“. S Nakamoto. 2008. . 2024 cites.
  2. Authenticated routing for ad hoc networks“. K Sanzgiri, D LaFlamme, B Dahill…. 2005. IEEE Journal on …. 367 cites.
  3. Hashcash-a denial of service counter-measure“. A Back. 2002. . 354 cites.
  4. Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable“. I Eyal, EG Sirer. 2014. Springer International conference on financial cryptography and …. 345 cites.
  5. Quantitative analysis of the full bitcoin transaction graph“. D Ron, A Shamir. 2013. Springer … Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data …. 308 cites.
  6. Bitter to better—how to make bitcoin a better currency“. S Barber, X Boyen, E Shi, E Uzun. 2012. Springer International Conference on Financial …. 307 cites.
  7. An analysis of anonymity in the bitcoin system“. F Reid, M Harrigan. 2013. Springer Security and privacy in social networks. 297 cites.
  8. Zerocoin: Anonymous distributed e-cash from bitcoin“. I Miers, C Garman, M Green…. 2013. Security and Privacy (SP) …. 293 cites.
  9. Fighting spam on social web sites: A survey of approaches and future challenges“. P Heymann, G Koutrika…. 2007. IEEE Internet …. 288 cites.
  10. Filtering spam with behavioral blacklisting“. A Ramachandran, N Feamster, S Vempala. 2007. Proceedings of the 14th …. 275 cites.
  11. Moderately hard, memory-bound functions“. M Abadi, M Burrows, M Manasse…. 2005. ACM Transactions on …. 273 cites.
  12. An empirical study of spam traffic and the use of DNS black lists“. J Jung, E Sit. 2004. Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGCOMM conference on …. 268 cites.
  13. Legal violence: Immigration law and the lives of Central American immigrants“. C Menjívar, L Abrego. 2012. American Journal of Sociology. 252 cites.
  14. Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger“. G Wood. 2014. Ethereum Project Yellow Paper. 237 cites.
  15. Zerocash: Decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin“. EB Sasson, A Chiesa, C Garman…. 2014. Security and Privacy …. 235 cites.
  16. Security threats in cloud computing“. FB Shaikh, S Haider. 2011. Internet technology and secured …. 230 cites.
  17. Incentive-aware routing in DTNs“. U Shevade, HH Song, L Qiu…. 2008. Network Protocols, 2008 …. 229 cites.
  18. Self-assembly of metal nanocrystals on ultrathin oxide for nonvolatile memory applications“. C Lee, J Meteer, V Narayanan, EC Kan. 2005. Springer Journal of Electronic Materials. 224 cites.
  19. Information propagation in the bitcoin network“. C Decker, R Wattenhofer. 2013. Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P) …. 218 cites.
  20. Evaluating user privacy in bitcoin“. E Androulaki, GO Karame, M Roeschlin…. 2013. Springer … Conference on Financial …. 217 cites.
  21. The session initiation protocol (SIP) and spam“. J Rosenberg, C Jennings. 2008. . 209 cites.
  22. Establishing the Genuinity of Remote Computer Systems.“. R Kennell, LH Jamieson. 2003. USENIX Security Symposium. 201 cites.
  23. Sok: Research perspectives and challenges for bitcoin and cryptocurrencies“. J Bonneau, A Miller, J Clark…. 2015. Security and Privacy …. 200 cites.
  24. Portcullis: protecting connection setup from denial-of-capability attacks“. B Parno, D Wendlandt, E Shi, A Perrig…. 2007. ACM SIGCOMM …. 197 cites.
  25. Bitcoin: Economics, technology, and governance“. R Böhme, N Christin…. 2015. American Economic Association The Journal of …. 195 cites.
  26. The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications.“. JA Garay, A Kiayias, N Leonardos. 2015. EUROCRYPT (2). 187 cites.
  27. Proofs of work and bread pudding protocols“. M Jakobsson, A Juels. 1999. Springer Secure Information Networks. 176 cites.
  28. RE: Reliable Email.“. S Garriss, M Kaminsky, MJ Freedman, B Karp…. 2006. NSDI. 170 cites.
  29. Bounds on information exchange for Byzantine agreement“. D Dolev, R Reischuk. 1985. Journal of the ACM (JACM). 167 cites.
  30. Methods, apparatus and systems for chronicling the activities of field technicians“. S Nielsen, C Chambers, J Farr. 2012. Google Patents US Patent App. 13/465,524. 166 cites.
  31. Beware the middleman: Empirical analysis of Bitcoin-exchange risk“. T Moore, N Christin. 2013. Springer … Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data …. 162 cites.
  32. From extractable collision resistance to succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge, and back again“. N Bitansky, R Canetti, A Chiesa, E Tromer. 2012. Proceedings of the 3rd …. 160 cites.
  33. The economics of Bitcoin mining, or Bitcoin in the presence of adversaries“. JA Kroll, IC Davey, EW Felten. 2013. Proceedings of WEIS. 157 cites.
  34. The regularisation of unauthorized migrants: Literature survey and country case studies“. A Levinson. 2005. . 157 cites.
  35. Time and work tracker“. GR Skinner, MG Lehman. 1997. Google Patents US Patent 5,696,702. 155 cites.
  36. Optimal mechanism design and money burning“. JD Hartline, T Roughgarden. 2008. Proceedings of the fortieth annual ACM …. 149 cites.
  37. Using uncleanliness to predict future botnet addresses“. MP Collins, TJ Shimeall, S Faber, J Janies…. 2007. Proceedings of the 7th …. 145 cites.
  38. On bitcoin and red balloons“. M Babaioff, S Dobzinski, S Oren, A Zohar. 2012. Proceedings of the 13th ACM …. 142 cites.
  39. Modeling and preventing phishing attacks“. M Jakobsson. 2005. Financial Cryptography. 142 cites.
  40. Information security economics–and beyond“. R Anderson, T Moore. 2007. Springer Advances in cryptology-crypto 2007. 136 cites.
  41. Peer-to-peer systems“. R Rodrigues, P Druschel. 2010. Communications of the ACM. 131 cites.
  42. Proof-of-work proves not to work; version 0.2“. B Laurie, R Clayton. 2004. Workshop on Economics and …. 130 cites.
  43. Double-spending fast payments in bitcoin“. GO Karame, E Androulaki, S Capkun. 2012. … of the 2012 ACM conference on …. 129 cites.
  44. Brown-collar jobs: Occupational segregation and earnings of recent-immigrant Latinos“. L Catanzarite. 2000. Sociological Perspectives. 123 cites.
  45. Dismantling the poverty trap: Disability policy for the twenty‐first century“. DC Stapleton, BL O’day, GA Livermore…. 2006. Wiley Online Library The Milbank …. 122 cites.
  46. Decentralizing privacy: Using blockchain to protect personal data“. G Zyskind, O Nathan. 2015. Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW …. 119 cites.
  47. Proofs of work and bread pudding protocols“. BM Jakobsson, A Juels. 2008. Google Patents US Patent 7,356,696. 117 cites.
  48. On scaling decentralized blockchains“. K Croman, C Decker, I Eyal, AE Gencer, A Juels…. 2016. Springer … Conference on Financial …. 114 cites.
  49. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol.“. I Eyal, AE Gencer, EG Sirer, R Van Renesse. 2016. NSDI. 114 cites.
  50. Network time and work tracker“. GR Skinner, MG Lehman. 1999. Google Patents US Patent 5,963,914. 112 cites.
  51. Proof nets for unit-free multiplicative-additive linear logic“. DJD Hughes, RJ Van Glabbeek. 2005. ACM Transactions on Computational …. 111 cites.
  52. The taxation of undocumented immigrants: Separate, unequal, and without representation“. FJ Lipman. 2006. HeinOnline Harv. Latino L. Rev.. 111 cites.
  53. An Empirical Study of Clustering Behavior of Spammers and Group-based Anti-Spam Strategies.“. F Li, MH Hsieh. 2006. CEAS. 109 cites.
  54. An analysis of anonymity in the bitcoin system“. F Reid, M Harrigan. 2011. Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust (PASSAT …. 107 cites.
  55. Cryptographic primitives enforcing communication and storage complexity“. P Golle, S Jarecki, I Mironov. 2002. Springer International Conference on Financial …. 104 cites.
  56. A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform“. V Buterin. 2014. white paper. 104 cites.
  57. Secure computation without authentication“. B Barak, R Canetti, Y Lindell, R Pass…. 2005. Springer Annual International …. 100 cites.
  58. Welfare trends in Sweden: balancing the books for the 1990s“. J Palme, A Bergmark, O Backman…. 2002. … of European Social …. 100 cites.
  59. Mixcoin: Anonymity for Bitcoin with accountable mixes“. J Bonneau, A Narayanan, A Miller, J Clark…. 2014. Springer … Conference on Financial …. 99 cites.
  60. Edos-shield-a two-steps mitigation technique against edos attacks in cloud computing“. MH Sqalli, F Al-Haidari, K Salah. 2011. Utility and Cloud Computing …. 98 cites.
  61. Transformations between uml and owl-s“. R Grønmo, MC Jaeger, H Hoff. 2005. Springer European Conference on Model Driven …. 98 cites.
  62. “When perhaps the real problem is money itself!”: the practical materiality of Bitcoin“. B Maurer, TC Nelms, L Swartz. 2013. Taylor & Francis Social Semiotics. 97 cites.
  63. Structure and anonymity of the bitcoin transaction graph“. M Ober, S Katzenbeisser, K Hamacher. 2013. Future internet. 93 cites.
  64. James Joyce“. HS Gorman. 1974. Octagon Press, Limited . 93 cites.
  65. Countering DoS attacks with stateless multipath overlays“. A Stavrou, AD Keromytis. 2005. Proceedings of the 12th ACM conference on …. 93 cites.
  66. How to play almost any mental game over the net-concurrent composition via super-polynomial simulation“. B Barak, A Sahai. 2005. … of Computer Science, 2005. FOCS 2005 …. 92 cites.
  67. The Midwives Book“. J Sharp. 1985. . 92 cites.
  68. NetFence: preventing internet denial of service from inside out“. X Liu, X Yang, Y Xia. 2010. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication …. 90 cites.
  69. Free riding in peer-to-peer networks“. M Karakaya, I Korpeoglu, Ö Ulusoy. 2009. IEEE Internet computing. 89 cites.
  70. Deanonymisation of clients in Bitcoin P2P network“. A Biryukov, D Khovratovich, I Pustogarov. 2014. Proceedings of the 2014 ACM …. 88 cites.
  71. Guaranteeing access in spite of distributed service-flooding attacks“. VD Gligor. 2003. Springer Security Protocols Workshop. 86 cites.
  72. Blockchains and smart contracts for the internet of things“. K Christidis, M Devetsikiotis. 2016. IEEE Access. 86 cites.
  73. Monte Carlo estimates of the mass gap of the O (2) and O (3) spin models in 1+ 1 dimensions“. G Fox, R Gupta, O Martin, S Otto. 1982. Elsevier Nuclear Physics B. 86 cites.
  74. Welfare and the unemployment crisis: Sweden in the 1990s“. Å Bergmark, J Palme. 2003. Wiley Online Library International Journal of Social Welfare. 85 cites.
  75. Innovations in payment technologies and the emergence of digital currencies“. R Ali, J Barrdear, R Clews, J Southgate. 2014. . 83 cites.
  76. The economics of Bitcoin and similar private digital currencies“. GP Dwyer. 2015. Elsevier Journal of Financial Stability. 83 cites.
  77. Transition: The History of a Literary Era 1927-1938“. D McMillan. 1975. Calder Publications Limited . 82 cites.
  78. Analysis of hashrate-based double spending“. M Rosenfeld. 2014. arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.2009. 80 cites.
  79. Enabling blockchain innovations with pegged sidechains“. A Back, M Corallo, L Dashjr, M Friedenbach…. 2014. URL: http://www …. 80 cites.
  80. The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. BFT replication“. M Vukolić. 2015. Springer International Workshop on Open Problems in Network …. 79 cites.
  81. A unified framework for concurrent security: universal composability from stand-alone non-malleability“. H Lin, R Pass, M Venkitasubramaniam. 2009. … of the forty-first annual ACM …. 79 cites.
  82. Permacoin: Repurposing bitcoin work for data preservation“. A Miller, A Juels, E Shi, B Parno…. 2014. Security and Privacy (SP) …. 76 cites.
  83. The effect of stock spam on financial markets“. R Böhme, T Holz. 2006. . 76 cites.
  84. Making nursing visible? Gender, technology and the care plan as script“. M Wilson. 2002. Information Technology & People. 76 cites.
  85. Ppcoin: Peer-to-peer crypto-currency with proof-of-stake“. S King, S Nadal. 2012. self-published paper, August. 75 cites.
  86. Analyzing interaction between distributed denial of service attacks and mitigation technologies“. WJ Blackert, DM Gregg, AK Castner…. 2003. … and exposition, 2003 …. 75 cites.
  87. Secure high-rate transaction processing in bitcoin“. Y Sompolinsky, A Zohar. 2015. Springer … Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data …. 75 cites.
  88. Do the rich get richer? An empirical analysis of the Bitcoin transaction network“. D Kondor, M Pósfai, I Csabai, G Vattay. 2014. PloS one. 75 cites.
  89. Mitigating distributed denial of service attacks with dynamic resource pricing“. D Mankins, R Krishnan, C Boyd, J Zao…. 2001. … , 2001. ACSAC 2001 …. 74 cites.
  90. Keeping denial-of-service attackers in the dark“. G Badishi, A Herzberg, I Keidar. 2007. IEEE Transactions on …. 74 cites.
  91. Two Bitcoins at the Price of One? Double-Spending Attacks on Fast Payments in Bitcoin.“. G Karame, E Androulaki…. 2012. IACR Cryptology ePrint …. 74 cites.
  92. CoinShuffle: Practical decentralized coin mixing for Bitcoin“. T Ruffing, P Moreno-Sanchez, A Kate. 2014. Springer European Symposium on …. 72 cites.
  93. The miner’s dilemma“. I Eyal. 2015. Security and Privacy (SP), 2015 IEEE Symposium on. 71 cites.
  94. Secure distributed human computation“. C Gentry, Z Ramzan, S Stubblebine. 2005. … of the 6th ACM conference on …. 70 cites.
  95. Bitcoin mining and its energy footprint“. KJ O’Dwyer, D Malone. 2014. IET . 68 cites.
  96. Propagating trust in ad-hoc networks for reliable routing“. AA Pirzada, A Datta, C McDonald. 2004. Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks …. 65 cites.
  97. The Illlusory Provisions of Sanctions: The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986“. CM Espenoza. 1994. HeinOnline Geo. Immigr. LJ. 64 cites.
  98. Is Bitcoin a decentralized currency?“. A Gervais, G Karame, S Capkun, V Capkun. 2014. IEEE security & privacy. 64 cites.
  99. Blockchain technology: principles and applications“. M Pilkington. 2015. Browser Download This Paper. 63 cites.
  100. SoK: secure messaging“. N Unger, S Dechand, J Bonneau, S Fahl…. 2015. Security and Privacy …. 62 cites.
  101. Commitcoin: Carbon dating commitments with bitcoin“. J Clark, A Essex. 2012. Springer Financial Cryptography and Data Security. 61 cites.
  102. Towards Reliable Storage of 56-bit Secrets in Human Memory.“. J Bonneau, SE Schechter. 2014. USENIX Security Symposium. 61 cites.
  103. Proof of Activity: Extending Bitcoin’s Proof of Work via Proof of Stake [Extended Abstract] y“. I Bentov, C Lee, A Mizrahi, M Rosenfeld. 2014. ACM SIGMETRICS …. 60 cites.
  104. Enhancing bitcoin security and performance with strong consistency via collective signing“. EK Kogias, P Jovanovic, N Gailly, I Khoffi…. 2016. 25th USENIX Security …. 60 cites.
  105. Decentralized blockchain technology and the rise of lex cryptographia“. A Wright, P De Filippi. 2015. . 60 cites.
  106. Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin“. A Sapirshtein, Y Sompolinsky, A Zohar. 2016. Springer International Conference on …. 59 cites.
  107. Economic denial of sustainability (edos) in cloud services using http and xml based ddos attacks“. S VivinSandar, S Shenai. 2012. International Journal of Computer …. 58 cites.
  108. Tachograph for motor vehicles“. G Mutz. 1987. Google Patents US Patent 4,644,368. 57 cites.
  109. Secure outsourced garbled circuit evaluation for mobile devices“. H Carter, B Mood, P Traynor…. 2016. Journal of Computer …. 57 cites.
  110. The sudden removal of user fees: the perspective of a frontline manager in Burundi“. M Nimpagaritse, MP Bertone. 2011. Health policy and planning. 56 cites.
  111. Hidden struggles: spaces of power and resistance in informal work in urban Argentina“. R Whitson. 2007. Environment and Planning A. 56 cites.
  112. Application of the random forest method in studies of local lymph node assay based skin sensitization data“. S Li, A Fedorowicz, H Singh…. 2005. ACS Publications Journal of chemical …. 55 cites.
  113. Diverticular disease of the colon: a 1968 view.“. I Williams. 1968. Gut. 54 cites.
  114. Proofs of space“. S Dziembowski, S Faust, V Kolmogorov…. 2015. Springer Annual Cryptology …. 54 cites.
  115. How many undocumented: The numbers behind the US-Mexico migration talks“. BL Lowell, R Suro. 2002. . 54 cites.
  116. Time and work tracker with hardware abstraction layer“. GR Skinner, MG Lehman. 2001. Google Patents US Patent 6,185,514. 54 cites.
  117. Quantification of overload injuries to thoracolumbar vertebrae and discs in persons exposed to heavy physical exertions or vibration at the workplace Part II …“. P Brinckmann, W Frobin, M Biggemann, M Tillotson…. 1998. Elsevier Clinical …. 54 cites.
  118. Outsourced proofs of retrievability“. F Armknecht, JM Bohli, GO Karame, Z Liu…. 2014. Proceedings of the 2014 …. 53 cites.
  119. Towards next-generation botnets“. R Hund, M Hamann, T Holz. 2008. Computer Network Defense, 2008 …. 52 cites.
  120. Inclusive block chain protocols“. Y Lewenberg, Y Sompolinsky, A Zohar. 2015. Springer International Conference on …. 51 cites.
  121. ScrambleSuit: A polymorphic network protocol to circumvent censorship“. P Winter, T Pulls, J Fuss. 2013. Proceedings of the 12th ACM workshop on …. 50 cites.
  122. Cryptocurrencies without proof of work“. I Bentov, A Gabizon, A Mizrahi. 2016. Springer International Conference on Financial …. 49 cites.
  123. Vuvuzela: Scalable private messaging resistant to traffic analysis“. J Van Den Hooff, D Lazar, M Zaharia…. 2015. Proceedings of the 25th …. 49 cites.
  124. Blockstack: A Global Naming and Storage System Secured by Blockchains.“. M Ali, JC Nelson, R Shea, MJ Freedman. 2016. USENIX Annual Technical …. 48 cites.
  125. A moving target DDoS defense mechanism“. H Wang, Q Jia, D Fleck, W Powell, F Li…. 2014. Elsevier Computer …. 48 cites.
  126. Hourglass schemes: how to prove that cloud files are encrypted“. M Van Dijk, A Juels, A Oprea, RL Rivest…. 2012. Proceedings of the …. 48 cites.
  127. On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains“. A Gervais, GO Karame, K Wüst, V Glykantzis…. 2016. Proceedings of the …. 47 cites.
  128. Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack“. K Nayak, S Kumar, A Miller, E Shi. 2016. Security and Privacy …. 47 cites.
  129. Distributed Quota Enforcement for Spam Control.“. M Walfish, JD Zamfirescu, H Balakrishnan, DR Karger…. 2006. NSDI. 46 cites.
  130. An economic response to unsolicited communication“. T Loder, M Van Alstyne, R Wash. 2006. Advances in Economic Analysis & …. 46 cites.
  131. Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks“. R Pass, L Seeman, A Shelat. 2017. Springer … International Conference on the Theory and …. 45 cites.
  132. Proactively Accountable Anonymous Messaging in Verdict.“. H Corrigan-Gibbs, DI Wolinsky, B Ford. 2013. USENIX Security Symposium. 45 cites.
  133. The problem with Bitcoin“. D Bradbury. 2013. Elsevier Computer Fraud & Security. 45 cites.
  134. Understanding modern banking ledgers through blockchain technologies: Future of transaction processing and smart contracts on the internet of money“. GW Peters, E Panayi. 2016. Springer Banking Beyond Banks and Money. 45 cites.
  135. Can we afford integrity by proof-of-work? Scenarios inspired by the Bitcoin currency“. J Becker, D Breuker, T Heide, J Holler…. 2013. Springer The Economics of …. 44 cites.
  136. Decentralized Anonymous Credentials.“. C Garman, M Green, I Miers. 2014. NDSS. 44 cites.
  137. Case study of the miner botnet“. D Plohmann, E Gerhards-Padilla. 2012. Cyber Conflict (CYCON) …. 43 cites.
  138. The stellar consensus protocol: A federated model for internet-level consensus“. D Mazieres. 2015. Stellar Development Foundation. 43 cites.
  139. Controlling spam through lightweight currency“. D Turner, D Havey. 2004. Proceedings of the Hawaii …. 43 cites.
  140. Misbehavior in bitcoin: A study of double-spending and accountability“. GO Karame, E Androulaki, M Roeschlin…. 2015. ACM Transactions on …. 43 cites.
  141. Toward a secure batch verification with group testing for VANET“. CC Lee, YM Lai. 2013. Springer Wireless networks. 43 cites.
  142. When More Security Equals Less Workplace Safety: Reconsidering US Laws That Disadvantage Unauthorized Workers“. B Lyon. 2003. HeinOnline U. Pa. J. Lab. & Emp. L.. 43 cites.
  143. Why countries continue to consider regularization“. A Levinson. 2005. Migration Information Source. 42 cites.
  144. Centrally banked cryptocurrencies“. G Danezis, S Meiklejohn. 2015. arXiv preprint arXiv:1505.06895. 42 cites.
  145. Toxic Reproductive and Genetic Hazards in the Workplace: Challenging the Myths of the Tort and Workers’ Compensation Systems“. JM Eggen. 1993. HeinOnline Workers’ Comp. L. Rev.. 42 cites.
  146. Productivity space of information security in an extension of the Gordon-Loeb’s InvestmentModel“. K Matsuura. 2009. Springer Managing Information Risk and the Economics of …. 41 cites.
  147. Stronger Difficulty Notions for Client Puzzles and Denial-of-Service-Resistant Protocols.“. D Stebila, L Kuppusamy, J Rangasamy, C Boyd…. 2011. Springer CT-RSA. 41 cites.
  148. Game-theoretic analysis of DDoS attacks against Bitcoin mining pools“. B Johnson, A Laszka, J Grossklags, M Vasek…. 2014. Springer … Conference on Financial …. 41 cites.
  149. The weakest failure detector for message passing set-agreement“. C Delporte-Gallet, H Fauconnier, R Guerraoui…. 2008. Springer International Symposium …. 41 cites.
  150. Bitcoin over Tor isn’t a good idea“. A Biryukov, I Pustogarov. 2015. Security and Privacy (SP), 2015 …. 41 cites.
  151. spow: On-demand cloud-based eddos mitigation mechanism“. SH Khor, A Nakao. 2009. HotDep (Fifth Workshop on Hot Topics in System …. 40 cites.
  152. Anonymity of bitcoin transactions“. M Möser. 2013. Münster bitcoin conference. 40 cites.
  153. Corporate governance and blockchains“. D Yermack. 2017. Review of Finance. 40 cites.
  154. Bitcoin: Technical background and data analysis“. AI Badev, M Chen. 2014. . 40 cites.
  155. A secure sharding protocol for open blockchains“. L Luu, V Narayanan, C Zheng, K Baweja…. 2016. Proceedings of the …. 40 cites.
  156. Where Is Current Research on Blockchain Technology?—A Systematic Review“. J Yli-Huumo, D Ko, S Choi, S Park, K Smolander. 2016. PloS one. 40 cites.
  157. Proof of Work can Work.“. D Liu, LJ Camp. 2006. WEIS. 39 cites.
  158. Occupational issues of allergic contact dermatitis“. KE Andersen. 2003. Springer … archives of occupational and environmental health. 39 cites.
  159. Towards a theory of trust in networks of humans and computers“. V Gligor, JM Wing. 2011. Springer Security Protocols XIX. 39 cites.
  160. Catena: A memory-consuming password-scrambling framework“. C Forler, S Lucks, J Wenzel. 2013. . 39 cites.
  161. Can welfare reform make disability disappear?“. R Galvin. 2004. Wiley Online Library Australian Journal of Social Issues. 39 cites.
  162. The security cost of cheap user interaction“. R Böhme, J Grossklags. 2011. Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on New …. 39 cites.
  163. Systems and methods for protecting against denial of service attacks“. WC Feng, E Kaiser. 2012. Google Patents US Patent 8,321,955. 38 cites.
  164. Bitcoin is memory“. WJ Luther, J Olson. 2013. . 38 cites.
  165. Architecture of the Hyperledger blockchain fabric“. C Cachin. 2016. Workshop on Distributed Cryptocurrencies and …. 38 cites.
  166. Motag: Moving target defense against internet denial of service attacks“. Q Jia, K Sun, A Stavrou. 2013. Computer Communications and …. 38 cites.
  167. Primed: community-of-interest-based ddos mitigation“. P Verkaik, O Spatscheck, J Van der Merwe…. 2006. Proceedings of the …. 38 cites.
  168. Do libertarians dream of electric coins? The material embeddedness of Bitcoin“. H Karlstrøm. 2014. Taylor & Francis Distinktion: Scandinavian Journal of Social Theory. 37 cites.
  169. The role of gender in user resistance and information systems failure“. M Wilson, D Howcroft. 2000. Springer … and social perspectives on information technology. 37 cites.
  170. Unconditional welfare benefits and the principle of reciprocity“. S Segall. 2005. Politics, philosophy & economics. 36 cites.
  171. The hunting of the SNARK“. N Bitansky, R Canetti, A Chiesa, S Goldwasser…. 2017. Springer Journal of …. 36 cites.
  172. Enhancing ZRTP by using Computational Puzzles.“. H Hlavacs, WN Gansterer, H Schabauer, J Zottl…. 2008. J. UCS. 36 cites.
  173. Adapting workers’ compensation to the special problems of occupational disease“. L Locke. 1985. HeinOnline Harv. Envtl. L. Rev.. 35 cites.
  174. To Hash or Not to Hash Again?(In) Differentiability Results for H 2 and HMAC.“. Y Dodis, T Ristenpart, JP Steinberger, S Tessaro. 2012. Springer CRYPTO. 35 cites.
  175. Demystifying incentives in the consensus computer“. L Luu, J Teutsch, R Kulkarni, P Saxena. 2015. Proceedings of the 22nd ACM …. 35 cites.
  176. Halting password puzzles“. X Boyen. 2007. Proc. Usenix Security. 35 cites.
  177. Primecoin: Cryptocurrency with prime number proof-of-work“. S King. 2013. July 7th. 34 cites.
  178. Proofs of space: When space is of the essence“. G Ateniese, I Bonacina, A Faonio, N Galesi. 2014. Springer International Conference on …. 34 cites.
  179. R-Chain: A Self-Maintained Reputation Management System in P2P Networks.“. L Liu, S Zhang, KD Ryu, P Dasgupta. 2004. ISCA PDCS. 34 cites.
  180. The Plight of the Targeted Attacker in a World of Scale.“. C Herley. 2010. WEIS. 34 cites.
  181. The market for cryptocurrencies“. LH White. 2015. HeinOnline Cato J.. 34 cites.
  182. About the relation between psycho-analytic training and psycho-analytic therapy“. M Grotjahn. 1954. The International journal of psycho-analysis. 34 cites.
  183. Botcoin: Monetizing Stolen Cycles.“. DY Huang, H Dharmdasani, S Meiklejohn, V Dave…. 2014. NDSS. 34 cites.
  184. DoS: Fighting fire with fire“. M Walfish, H Balakrishnan, D Karger, S Shenker. 2005. . 33 cites.
  185. Bitcoin mining pools: A cooperative game theoretic analysis“. Y Lewenberg, Y Bachrach, Y Sompolinsky…. 2015. Proceedings of the …. 33 cites.
  186. The dual receiver cryptosystem and its applications“. T Diament, HK Lee, AD Keromytis, M Yung. 2004. Proceedings of the 11th …. 33 cites.
  187. Low-Cost Client Puzzles Based on Modular Exponentiation.“. G Karame, S Capkun. 2010. Springer ESORICS. 33 cites.
  188. Blockchain technology: Beyond bitcoin“. M Crosby, P Pattanayak, S Verma…. 2016. Applied …. 33 cites.
  189. Speed-Security Tradeoffs in Blockchain Protocols.“. A Kiayias, G Panagiotakos. 2015. IACR Cryptology ePrint …. 33 cites.
  190. Bitcoin meets strong consistency“. C Decker, J Seidel, R Wattenhofer. 2016. Proceedings of the 17th International …. 32 cites.
  191. Tampering with the delivery of blocks and transactions in bitcoin“. A Gervais, H Ritzdorf, GO Karame…. 2015. Proceedings of the 22nd …. 32 cites.
  192. Sybilcontrol: practical sybil defense with computational puzzles“. F Li, P Mittal, M Caesar, N Borisov. 2012. … of the seventh ACM workshop on …. 32 cites.
  193. Regularization programs for undocumented migrants“. S Sunderhaus. 2007. Migration Letters. 32 cites.
  194. A domain-specific language for modelling security objectives in a business process models of soa applications“. M Saleem, J Jaafar, M Hassan. 2012. AISS. 31 cites.
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